Alhamdulillah was Salatu Salam…
First of all, I narrated the hadith to you – the musalsal bil awwaliya, the hadith al-rahmah, the one narrated by Sayyiduna ‘Abdullah bin ‘Amr bin al ’Aas (ra) – so that your tasalsul also remains, the one which was heard first by every rawi from his marwi ‘anhu, and every student from his teacher. However, this tasalsul is only until Sufyan ibn ‘Uyaynah (ra), not above him.
I heard this hadith for the first time from my Shaykh and Murshid, Shaykh al Hadith Maulana Muhammad Zakariyya (ra), in 1387 AH, 53 years ago. And he heard it for the first time from his Shaykh and Ustaadh, Shaykh Khalil Ahmad Saharanpuri (ra). He, in turn, heard it for the first time from Hadhrat Maulana Abdul Qayyum Bodhanwi (ra) – who was the son of Hadhrat Maulana Abdul Hayy (ra)…Hadhrat Maulana Abdul Qayyum (ra) heard it for the first time from Hadhrat Shah Muhammad Ishaq Dehlawi (ra), and he heard it for the first time from his maternal grandfather, Hadhrat Shah Abdul Aziz Dehlawi (ra), and he heard it for the first time from his father, Shah Waliullah Dehlawi (ra). The rest of the sanad can be found in ‘Al Fadhl al Mubeen fil Hadith il Musalsal ‘an Nabbiyil Ameen’ which is a risalah of Shah Waliullah Dehlawi (ra), and is known as ‘Musalsalaat’.
This baab which you just read, is the last baab of Sahih al-Bukhari. Imam Bukhari (ra) prepared this collection of ahadith in a special way and with a lot of care, in which he narrowed down 100,000 ahadith from an initial 600,000, and then chose his final collection from this 100,000. Allah (swt) has granted great acceptance to this work. This is the last baab of Sahih al-Bukhari – whose full name is, ‘al-Jaami’ al-Sahih al-Musnad al-Mukhtasar min Umuri Rasooli-llahi wa Sunanihi wa Ayyaamihi’ (The Abridged Collection of Authentic Hadith with Connected Chains regarding Matters Pertaining to the Prophet, His Practices and His Times).
The last kitaab in Nasafi’s manuscript is “kitaab ut tawheed”, and the majority have relied upon this. Mustamli however, has increased the title by “radd” onwards by calling it “kitaab ut tawheed war-radd ‘alal jahmiyaa wa ghairihi”, and this is the last baab. Generally speaking, commentators give preference to the last kitaab being called “kitaab ut tawheed” however, our Shaykh Maulana Zakariyya (ra)’s opinion is that the last kitaab is the ‘kitaab ul ‘itisaam bil kitaab wal sunnah’ which is before “kitaab ut tawheed” and “kitaab ut tawheed” is part of this “kitaab ul ‘itisaam…”, despite the fact that commentators normally regard “kitaab ut tawheed” as the last kitaab of Sahih al-Bukhari. And this baab that you read “baab u qaul ilallah wa nadhau’ al mawaazeen al qist li yaum il qiyamah” is the last baab of Sahih al-Bukhari.
Now, what is the relationship of this baab with “kitaab ut tawheed”? The meaning of tawheed is that which is understood by the Ahlus Sunnah wal Jama’ah. One is the tawheed of the Jahmiyya, who only believe in the essence of Allah (swt) and not His attributes since, according to them, believing in His attributes entails believing in the multiplicity of eternal beings. Whereas according to the Ahlus Sunnah, the meaning of tawheed is that both the essence and attributes of Allah (swt) are established and believed in. Imam Bukhari (ra) brought the “kitaab ut tawheed” for precisely this reason.
These Jahmiyya used to call themselves the “ashaab ut tawheed’’ because they don’t believe in the attributes of Allah since (according to their flawed belief) that entails the multiplicity of eternal beings; they only believe in the essence of Allah (swt) and deny His attributes, but then what is left without any attributes?
In any case, they called themselves the “ashaab ut tawheed” just as the Ahlul Bid’ah in our times call themselves the Ahlus Sunnah, …. Nonetheless, this is the last kitaab, “kitaab ut tawheed” and this is its last baab.
Now, what does Imam Bukhari (ra) want to prove in this last baab? Actually, in the “kitaab ut tawheed’, Imam Bukhari (ra) wants to prove both the essence and attributes of Allah (swt), and this is why Imam Bukhari (ra) has brought one or more ayaat of the Qur’an, with a lot of consideration, in the majority of baabs in this kitaab, since the matter is related to ‘aqaaid, and a daleel qat’i is needed for ‘aqaaid.
The ahaad ahadith which he brought, according to Hadhrat Shah Sahib (ra), are brought to prove the attributes of Allah (swt) through tawaatur qadr mushtarak. This means that individually, a khabr ul wahid cannot prove anything in a definite (qat’i) fashion, but when a collection of ahaad are brought, they can collectively prove the attributes of Allah (swt). For example, an incident took place somewhere (e.g., an accident) and you get the news that 2 cars collided, and 10 people were killed. A 2nd person informs you of the same accident but says 8 people were killed, and a 3rd person informs you that 7 people were killed. So, even though, all three reports are different in terms of the number, overall, one thing is established through qadr mushtarak, that an accident took place and some people were killed. …
Likewise, all the ahaad ahadith that Imam Bukhari (ra) brought in the “kitaab ut tawheed” prove the attributes of Allah (swt). The ayaat that he brings in the abwaab do prove the attributes of Allah (swt), but since the purpose of Sahih al-Bukhari was to bring ahadith, he also wants to bring ahadith on the topic. In any case, Imam Bukhari (ra) wants to prove the attributes of Allah (swt) along with His essence in the “kitaab ut tawheed”, and in this way, he wants to refute the Jahmiyya who deny the attributes of Allah (swt).
Now, what is the purpose of this last baab – “baab u qaul ilallah wa nadhau’ al mawaazeen al qist li yaumil qiyamah” – that Imam Bukhari (ra) established? Generally speaking, commentators mention that Imam Bukhari (ra) wants to prove the wadh’ul meezan, which is an attribute of Allah (swt) from the category of af’aal. There are two types of attributes: the attributes related to the essence of Allah (swt) and the attributes related to His af’aal, and this is from the category of af’aal. So, what is intended here is the purpose for which he established the “kitaab ut tawheed”.
Our akabireen, Hadhrat Anwar Shah Kashmiri (ra) and our predecessors, Allamah ibn Qayyim (ra) have inclined towards the fact that the purpose behind establishing this baab is to differentiate between tilawah and matloo. This is that matter in which Imam Bukhari (ra) was tested, and Hadhrat Shah Sahib’s opinion is that all these last abwaab were established to prove this matter – that tilawah, which is an action of a person, will be weighed. On the contrary, matloo, which is Allah’s Speech – of which tilawah is done – who can weigh this? In any case, according to Hadhrat Shah Sahib (ra), the purpose of this baab is to explain the difference between tilawah and matloo. This objective, according to both, is different.
Furthermore, Imam Bukhari (ra) wants to refute the Mu’tazila by proving the “wadhu’ ul meezan”. Mu’tazila don’t believe in the “meezan”. The word “meezan” which has come in the Qur’an, they take its majaazi (metaphorical) meaning. ‘Meezan’ is an Arabic word which is translated as ‘scale’, so this is its real meaning, and this is the maslak of the Ahlus Sunnah, that a scale will be established on the Day of Judgement. This is what is meant by the ayaat of the Qur’an and the ahadith which mention the ‘meezan’; its real meaning is intended.
Mu’tazila is a sect which came into being during the early period, during the caliphate of M’amun al-Rashid, when the Greek sciences were translated to Arabic (e.g., philosophy, logic etc.). A lot of doubts were raised as a result. Due to this, a group came about which weighed everything through the scales of intellect. If the intellect accepted it, then they would accept it otherwise – they wouldn’t reject it outright (e.g., in the Qur’an) – they would reinterpret it.
Here too, because “wa nadha…”, the establishment of the ‘meezan’ has been mentioned so they (object) saying “weighing actions on a scale?” Actions are actually from the a’raadh. The logicians have divided existent things into 2 categories: i) a’raadh’ ii) jawaahir. One is that which exists on its own and is not dependent on anything else for its existence (e.g., this desk exists on its own). The other is that whose existence is dependent on something else (e.g., whiteness). The colour of your kurta is white, but this whiteness doesn’t have an independent existence. Whenever whiteness will be found, it will be found in something else. Or for example this desk, it is long and wide, so this length and width is not found independently, they will always be found in something else. They don’t have an independent existence, rather, they are dependent on other things.
Such existent things are called a’raadh in the terminology of the logicians, and those things which can independently exist are called jawaahir. Mu’tazila say that ‘amaal don’t have an independent existence (e.g., we prayed Asr). This action of prayer is attached to us, it doesn’t have an independent existence. Can we tell after praying that this is our action of prayer, separating it from us? No, we cannot – it is an action that is attached to us and doesn’t independently exist. So how can we put it on the scale to weigh it? Only those things are put on the scale which have an independent existence. This is their opinion.
Therefore, (according to them) weighing a’maal is not possible because they are ‘araadh. So, wherever the word ‘meezan has come in the Qur’an, they interpreted those instances. The meaning of scale that we take – something which has two pans which we use to weigh – they don’t take this meaning, they say Allah (swt) will do justice on the Day of Judgement. This action of Allah (swt) has been mentioned in a majaazi meaning in the Qur’an by using ‘meezan’.
Their second proof of rejecting the real meaning of the ‘meezan’ is that, why would these be weighed in the scale? The need to weigh is only to find out the weight etc. but Allah (swt) already knows this so why would He do this? These are two logical proofs that they give, and answers have been given to both.
Firstly, with regards to a’raadh, this was for those times, but the times we’re living in, the concept they are saying that weighing a’raadh is not possible, this is not applicable anymore. There are many a’raadh which can be measured now (e.g., when someone gets a fever, it can be measured using a thermometer to find out how many degrees it is). Likewise, there is heat and cold. You have cholesterol in your blood, this cholesterol is not something independent, this is something in your blood, but it can be properly measured using appropriate instruments in our time. So, the times we’re living in, measuring a’raadh is not impossible anymore thus their denial doesn’t hold any weight.
Secondly, with regards to the fact that Allah (swt) knows everything, what was the need for Him to measure these? So, Allah (swt) doesn’t do this to find out Himself, rather, He does this to establish proof against human beings. There will be a proper court on the Day of Judgement, and just as in the court of this dunya, a case is taken up and witnesses are sought from the plaintiff, and the witnesses are also checked for their reliability, likewise, all these things will take place in that court, on the Day of Judgement.
It comes in the ahadith that on the Day of Judgement, Allah (swt) will ask Prophet Nuh (as) “Did you convey Our message to your people?” to which he will say, “Yes I did”. Then Allah (swt) will ask his ummah: “Did Nuh (as) convey Our message to you?”, but they will say, “No Nabi came to us, we know nothing”. They will deny outright. Then Prophet Nuh (as) will be asked, “You’re saying you conveyed the message; do you have any witnesses? He will say, “Yes”, (then he will be asked) “Who are those witnesses?”, to which he will reply, “The Ummah of Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘alayhi Wasallam)”. The Ummah of Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam) will be asked, and they will bear witness saying, “Yes, Prophet Nuh (AS) conveyed the message of Allah (SWT) to his Ummah”.
Just as in the court of the dunya, witnesses are checked for their reliability, they will also be asked: “You were not present in the time of Prophet Nuh (as), so on what basis do you bear witness that Prophet Nuh (as) conveyed Allah’s message?” They will reply to this by saying, “O Allah, the Rasool that you sent to us, meaning the Last Prophet, the Book that You sent to him; the Qur’an, in that (Book), You said that Prophet Nuh (as) had conveyed Your message to his nation.”
In any case, so whatever matters take place on the Day of Judgement (will be proven) just as all matters are proven in the (worldly) courts – even though Allah (swt) doesn’t need any of this. Sometimes, it happens that a student commits a crime and the administrator catches him doing so and asks him about it. (But the student says) “I didn’t do anything”, so the administrator then calls a witness who confirms that the student did indeed do it in front of him. Now, even though the administrator knows he committed the crime and can punish him on his own…, he does this to establish proof against him. Such scenarios will be created on the Day of Judgement that people will actually see justice being done. Every person will confess that he did do such and such acts, and he will not deny them.
Regardless, this is what the Mu’tazila say, that Allah (swt) already knows everything, and what is the need for Him to find out? An answer has been given to this, Allah (swt) will not do this to find out Himself, but rather, those people who have done such acts, Allah (swt) will do this to establish proof against them. So, the basis on which the Mu’tazila denied the weighing of deeds on the scale, an answer has been given to this from the Ahlus Sunnah wal Jama’ah, and wherever in the Qur’an, the word “meezan” has been used, the meaning of that is not its majaazi meaning (i.e., justice) rather, the meaning is its real meaning in that there will be a tool – just as we have a tool in the dunya through which we weigh things, and any increase or decrease is determined – likewise, a scale will be established on the Day of Judgement and people will be informed of the heaviness or lightness of their deeds through this. This is what is intended, and the Ahlus Sunnah wal Jama’ah have an agreement on this.
It is to explain this ‘aqida of the Ahlus Sunnah wal Jama’ah that Imam Bukhari (ra) established this baab, ‘baab u qaul ilallah wa nadhau’ al mawaazeen al qista li yaumil qiyamah’. This baab (is in accordance with) the saying of Allah (swt) that We will establish scales of justice on the Day of Judgement.
Now, this word “qist” came with “almawazeen” as a sifah, (but) “mawazeen” is a plural of “meezan”, so the question arises: there’s a principle of Arabic grammar that there’s conformance between the mausoof and the sifah in terms of being singular, dual, and plural, but the mausoof here is plural while the sifah is singular? An answer has been given to this that “qist” is a masdar, and with regards to the masdar, you must’ve studied that a masdar can become a sifah for a singular, dual, or plural. Some others gave a different answer that there’s ‘majaaz bil hadhf’ here, i.e., ‘nadha’u al mawaazeen dhawat il qist’ which means, “We will establish those scales which will comprise of justice”. The word “dhawat” will be considered omitted here, and just like ‘mawaazeen’ is a plural, ‘dhawat’ is also plural so conformance between the mausoof and sifah is achieved. And some others considered ‘qist’ as a mafu’l lahu, meaning “We will establish scales…” for what? “for justice”, this is in the meaning of mafu’l lahu. (Then) ‘li yaumil qiyamah’, the ‘laam’ is giving the meaning of time, i.e., on the Day of Judgement.
Now, this next phrase, “wa anna a’maal bani aadam wa qaulahum yuzanu”, Imam Bukhari (ra) has actually divided up this baab into 2 parts, as is his habit. Sometimes, he brings ayaat in the baab, ayaat are also part of the baab, and then he also presents his claims. So, here “wa anna ‘amaal bani aadam…yuzanu”, these 2 parts make up the whole title of the baab. So now this “wa anna ‘amaal bani aadam…yuzanu” meaning that human beings’ deeds and speech will be weighed. The question arises: the matter is about deeds so why did he bring speech here? So, you must’ve studied this habit of Imam Bukhari (ra) in the book that when he presents a matter or claim, and he feels there is no explicit narration – according to his conditions – to prove this claim, then he increases something in his claim. So here too, “amaal bani aadam…yuzan”, deeds of human beings will be weighed. There is an explicit narration in this regard, for example, the one of Abu Darda (ra) (in which he says that) the heaviest of deeds on the Day of Judgement will be his akhlaaq, but this narration is not according to the conditions of Imam Bukhari (ra). For this reason, Imam Bukhari (ra) increased it by “wa qaulahum yuzanu”, i.e., human beings’ deeds and their speech.
In another manuscript, the one of Qabusi, (it is said) “…wa aqwaalahum tuzanu”, so some commentators considered this more appropriate because just as a’maal is plural, likewise, aqwaal is plural, so this is more appropriate. And the narration he brought – “kalimataani habeebataani ila-r Rahmani khafeefataani ala-l lisaani thaqeelataani fil meezaani” – 2 words which are heavy on the scales, this refers to the weighing of speech, and speech is a deed of the tongue. So, when the deed of the tongue will be weighed, then the deeds of the other body parts, e.g., deeds of the eye, deeds of the ear, deeds of the hand, deeds of the foot, the deeds of the other body parts which are considered deeds, – their getting weighed is automatically understood from this. This is a special way of Imam Bukhari (ra) to prove the title of his baab.
Now there’s another aspect here, “wa mawazeen”, he brought this as a plural as if to say, “scales will be established”. So, will there be many scales? Or will there be one scale? This is also a differed upon matter between the people of knowledge. Imam Razi (ra) says that since the plural has been used in the Qur’an, it looks like there will be many scales. But what is the purpose of many scales? So, it looks like each person will have his/her own scale; you will have your own scale (repeated 3 times as if pointing to different people). However many human beings there will be (hundreds of thousands) likewise will be that number of scales; so the plural was brought.
Some said that the scales will be numerous according to the different types of deeds, e.g., a separate scale for salah, a separate scale for fasting, and a separate scale for zakat and sadaqah. Just as there are different scales in the dunya, e.g., a separate scale for gold, a separate scale for fodder, and a separate scale for wood so likewise different scales for deeds; that’s why the plural was brought.
However, another opinion is that the scale is only one, and this was mentioned by Hafiz ibn Kathir (ra). Hafiz ibn Hajr (ra) declared this to be the preferred opinion. But the question arises that the scale is one, so why was the plural brought – ‘mawazeen’. So, the answer is given that this is to show its greatness and magnificence; sometimes the thing is one, but the plural is brought to show its greatness. And that greatness which has been mentioned in the athar of Salman al Farsi (ra) narrated by Abul Qasim Lalkai (ra), that the scale will be so big that everything in the heavens and the earth will come in only one of its pans, so the plural was brought to show its greatness. Some also said, the scale will be one, but it will be used to weigh many deeds as if to say, that it will do the work of many scales, so the plural has been brought with respect to this meaning.
In any case, an agreement is found in the Ahlus Sunnah on the scale, but there is a difference of opinion as to what exactly will be weighed in it. Hafiz ibn Kathir and Allamah Baghawi have narrated one opinion that the people who did the deeds will themselves be weighed. Now, this opinion is mentioned but whose opinion is this? Hadhrat Shaykh Muhammad Yunus (ra) used to say that after a lot of investigation, he still couldn’t figure out who exactly had this opinion, so when he couldn’t figure it out, then how will we be able to figure it out? However, a proof is brought for this opinion – a narration in kitaab ut tafseer, in the tafseer of Surah Kahf, in Sahih al-Bukhari that a tall man will be brought on the Day of Judgement, but this man will not even equal the weight of a mosquito’s wing in the sight of Allah (swt) – so we come to know that the people themselves will be weighed. So, this is one proof from Sahih al-Bukhari.
Another proof is an incident of Abdullah bin Masoo’d (ra), that once during a journey, he climbed up a peelu (Salvadora Persica) tree to get miswak, and due to the wind, his skinny heels became exposed. Seeing this, some Sahabah (ra) laughed unintentionally – sometimes laughter is unintentional. Seeing this, Rasul (Sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam) remarked, “Why do you laugh? These heels will be weightier on the scale of deeds on the Day of Judgement than the mountain of Uhud”. So, we come to know that the people themselves will be weighed. This hadith comes in ‘Adab ul Mufrad’ of Imam Bukhari (ra) as well as ‘Musnad Ahmad’, from the narration of Ali (ra) and Abdullah bin Masoo’d (ra).
The second opinion – the same problem that the Mu’tazilah faced, the Ahlus Sunnah face the same problem now – that the scrolls of deeds will be weighed since the weighing of the actual deeds doesn’t make sense. So, one group of the Ahlus Sunnah – amongst them, ibn Foorak (ra), Imam al Haramayn (ra), Abul Abbas Qartubi (ra), Abu Abdullah Qartubi (ra) – and Imam Razi (ra) declared this to be the majority opinion. And the author of ‘Ruh al Maa’ni’ has declared this to be the preferred opinion according to the mufassiroon, meaning the scrolls of deeds in which the deeds are written, these will be weighed. So whatever deeds a person has, the weight will be according to that.
There’s an athar of Abdullah ibn Umar (ra) which also supports this, and along with this, there is the “hadith ul bitaaqa” narrated by Abdullah bin Amr bin al Aas (ra), found in Tirmidhi and others, that on the Day of Judgement, Rasul (Sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam) says that a person will be taken out from the crowd, and 99 scrolls of deeds, all of them filled with sin – and one scroll is so big that it is spread till the end of one’s eyesight – will be taken out and this person will be informed that these are your sins, did you do all of these sins? Did our angels do any injustice in recording these? Just like – it happens in our country, not sure if it happens here – that a criminal didn’t commit something but is still charged with it, so likewise this person will be asked. But this person will confess that injustice was not done, and he did actually commit all these sins. Allah (swt) will ask, do you have any excuse?
See, we don’t do this – if some student does something wrong and he confesses to it, we punish him, but we don’t ask him if he had any excuse for doing it. Sometimes, people make mistakes due to some excuses and if this is the case, then such a mistake should be overlooked and forgiven. So, Allah (swt) will ask him if he has any excuse? He will say he doesn’t, and he will confess that those are his sins. So, Allah (swt) will say, We have one of your good deeds, and We don’t oppress anyone. One piece of paper will be taken out on which the Shahadah would be written and it would be said to him, go and get this weighed. The person will insist, what value does this piece of paper have compared to 99 scrolls of sins? But Allah (swt) will say, no, We only do justice so go and get it weighed. So, he will be sent to the place where deeds are weighed. The piece of paper will be placed in one pan and the 99 scrolls will be placed in the other. As soon as this is done, the pan with the piece of paper will go down so fast that all the 99 scrolls from the other pan will fly away here and there. Just like if you place a few grains on one pan and a 1 kg weight on the other, the pan with the grains will go up so fast that all the grains will fly away and spread out. Rasul (Sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam) says that nothing is weightier than Allah’s name. In any case, we find out from this narration that the scrolls of deeds – the registers – will be weighed.
The third opinion of the Ahlus Sunnah wal Jama’ah – held by Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal, ibn Hazm al Zaahiri, Abu Zur’a Raazi, Abu Haatim Raazi, Imam Bukhari himself, and ‘Ali ibn Madeeni – that the deeds themselves will be placed. Now, how will deeds be placed? Allah (swt) will place them. We don’t understand this in the dunya. One thing is for sure: the matters of the akhirah will not be analogized with the (matters of the) dunya. It comes in Sahih al-Bukhari that when the people of Jannah would’ve reached Jannah and the people of Jahannum would’ve reached Jahannum, a sheep would be placed and a call would be made to the people of Jannah who would look out, “O people of Jannah! Do you recognize this?”. They will say, “Yes, we do – this is death. We all tasted it”. Then the same call would be made to the people of Jahannum, they will also look out and they would ask “Do you recognize this?” They will say, “Yes, we do – this is death. We all tasted it”. Then this death would be slaughtered in front of them, so this death which would be given the form of a sheep, as if the ma’anawiyaat will be given the form of the ma’hsoosat.
Regardless, this is an opinion of the Ahlus Sunnah, and this is the opinion of Imam Bukhari (ra) himself. That is why he brought this sentence, “…wa anna ‘amaal bani aadam wa qaulahum yuzanu” – meaning deeds themselves will be weighed. And the hadith he brought – the two words which Allah (swt) likes very much, are very light on the tongue, but very weighty on the scale – so we come to know that the words themselves will be placed on the scale and they are very heavy. So, this claim of Imam Bukhari (ra) is proven through this.
In any case, moving forward, Mujahid (ra) says “al qistaas, al ‘adl birroomiya” – Mujahid (ra) is the student of ‘Abdullah ibn Abbas (ra) and is one of the imams of tafseer. It is Imam Bukhari’s habit also that he presents the lughawi ta’hqeeq of any word which comes, so here, the word “qist” has come in the title, so he presents the opinion of Mujahid (ra) as the lughawi ta’hqeeq of this word. The word “qistaas” has also come, whose root is the same as “qist”. In the Roman language, “justice” is called “qistaas”. And it is said, “al qist masdar ul muqsit” – this is the opinion of Abu Ubaydah Ma’mar ibn Mathanna (ra), whose opinions Imam Bukhari (ra) brings in his kitaab ut tafseer at different places, from his book ‘Majaaz ul Qur’an’. Allamah Qastallani (ra) mentions this but Hafiz (ra) doesn’t.
So “qist” is the masdar of “muqsit”, and “muqsit” means “the just one”. Now, a question arises – and ‘Allamah Kirmani (ra) himself gave rise to this question – that “muqsit” is mazeed feehi while “qist” is mujarrad so how can a mujarrad be a masdar of a mazeed feehi? The answer is: that “qist” is the root word for “iqsaat” and “iqsaat” is the masdar of “muqsit”, so this is how he considered this a masdar. In the Qur’an, the word “muqsit” has been used in the meaning of the one who does justice, and the word “qaasit” in the meaning of the oppressive one.
And next, he mentions the narration of Abu Huraira (ra) that 2 words are very dear to al-Rahman because these are words in which Allah’s praise and transcendence is expressed. Just as you like the words which are used to express your praise, likewise, here too Allah (swt) has been praised and His transcendence has been done; He has been described as being free from any defects, that’s why these are beloved to al-Rahman. Now this word “al-Rahman” has been used because getting this much reward for such small words is only due to the mercy of Allah (swt).
Then, these are light on the tongue but heavy on the scale. Generally speaking, whatever comes on the pattern of “fa’eel” can either be an ism faa’il or ism maf’ool. Here, “habeebataan” is an ism maf’ool, meaning “ma’hboobataan” while “khafeefataan” and “thaqeelataan” are ism faa’il. And these two words are: “subhanAllahi bi ‘hamdihi, subhanAllahil ‘azeem”.
Now, “kalimataan” along with its 3 sifaat combines and becomes khabar muqaddam while “subhanAllahi bi ‘hamdihi, subhanAllahil ‘azeem” becomes the mubtada’ mu’akkhar. ‘Allamah ibn Humam (ra) – the commentator of ‘Hidayah’, author of ‘Fath’ ul Qadeer’ – keeps this on the original formation of a jumlah ismiyyah; the mubtada’ being first and the khabar being second. So, “kalimataan” along with its sifahs becomes the mubtada’ while “subhanAllahi bi ‘hamdihi, subhanAllahil ‘azeem” becomes the khabar.
Then, the former group; a question arises due to them bringing the khabar first: what is the hikmah behind this? You must’ve studied in ‘‘ilm ul maa’ni’ that sometimes the khabar is brought before the mubtada’s for tashweeq ul mukhaatab, i.e., to increase the desire of the listener. For example, it is said there are 2 words that are very dear to al-Rahman, thus the desire of the listener increases, and he asks, what are these two words? Then it was said, such words which are light on the tongue, this increases the desire of the listener even more, and he requests to be informed of these. Then it is said, such words which are heavy on the scales, now the desire of the listener reaches its peak, and he’s on the verge of losing all his patience. Finally, it is said, “subhanAllahi bi ‘hamdihi, subhanAllahil ‘azeem”.
In any case, this is how the commentators explain this, but the reality is that the lesson we should derive from this hadith is: what are those aspects which increase the weight of our deeds? One thing we learn from this is that on the Day of Judgement, our deeds will not be counted, rather, they will be weighed. So, we should try to do those things which increase the weight of our deeds.
The first of these is imaan. The deeds of the disbelievers don’t have any weight because of the lack of imaan. Allah (swt) says in the Qur’an, in Surah Kahf: “falaa nuqeemu lahum yaum al qiyamati waznaa” meaning, “No weight will be established for them on the Day of Judgement”, and in another place, “wa qadimnaa ilaa maa ‘amiloo…”, Allah (swt) says, “We will direct Our attention to the deeds of the disbelievers and We will make them like scattered dust”, meaning their deeds will have no value due to their disbelief. So, the first thing which increases the weight of deeds is Imaan.
The second of these is ikhlaas. The more ikhlaas a person has, the more weight his deeds will have, just like we study “innama al a’maalu binniyyaat”. And the third of these is sidq, meaning performing deeds according to the way of Nabi (Sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam). When someone does some deed, for example, bidaa’ts, the Ahlul Bid’ah carry out these bid’aats with a lot of ikhlaas, and their ikhlaas cannot be doubted, but they will still not get any reward for them because they are not in accordance with the ways of Nabi (Sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam).
So, these are the 3 things which increase the weight of our deeds: i) Imaan ii) Ikhlaas iii) Ittiba’ Sunnah, which is also called sidq. For this reason, we should try to increase the weight of our deeds and we should take care of these 3 things. May Allah (swt) grant us the taufeeq to do this.